Coastal Ecology and Ocean Acidification at Olympic National Park

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Watch at: 00:00 / 00:00:20a little bit but we've got a good solidgroup of people joining us so why don'twe get goingum welcome everybody i'm glad tosee you all today um we have more than100 friendsjoining us today from around the stateand around the countryready to get their feet wet and get outon the olympic coastWatch at: 00:20 / 00:40my name is john meyer i'm a board memberat washington's national park fundi was asked to emcee this field triptoday because i have a strong interestin today's topicin fact i'm even writing a book aboutocean life along the west coastas we speak and that will includeolympic national park as well before weWatch at: 00:40 / 01:00get goingi want to tell you a little bit aboutwashington's national park fundwe're an organization that's beengrowing strong for yearswe have a 23-person board of directorswho work very hard to help the parksand we are led by a highly competent andand talented staff of sevenour vision is to see that our parks areWatch at: 01:00 / 01:20strong vibrantyouthful and everlasting and ourcornerstoneis strong engagement with the parks andwe work very closely with each of theparksuperintendents who provide us withtheir highest priorities for fundingeach yearso uh on to today and on to our virtualWatch at: 01:20 / 01:40field tripas many of us are cooped up at homethese days we figuredif we can't take you up to mount rainiernorth cascades or olympic national parkswe'll bring our beloved national parksto youso are you ready do you have your daypackready and packed do you got your snacksyou haveyour water bottles all filled up yourWatch at: 01:40 / 02:00hiking bootslay stabs down um if so let's board thevirtual bus and travel on over toolympic national parktoday our gracious host on the coast isstevefradkin steve is the coastal ecologistand limnologist at olympic national parkand has been since the year 2000Watch at: 02:00 / 02:20as the chief scientist and naturalresource manager for the parks marineand lake resourceshe conducts research and long-termmonitoring in the park's intertidal zoneas well as at the san juan islandnational historic parkand lewis and clark national historicparks he received his doctorate fromdartmouth collegeWatch at: 02:20 / 02:40after completing a masters in bachelorsat michigan state universityprior to coming to olympic he researchedthe life histories of barnaclesat the university of oregon's instituteof marine biology in coos bayoregon um so with thatsteve i'll turn it over to you greatWatch at: 02:40 / 03:00well thank you very much um i reallyappreciate theopportunity to come and visit you folkstoday and uhi appreciate the uh the offer to haveeveryonelace up their boots uh although i thinktoday uhin the spirit of the pacific northwestuh probably having some extra toughs onbecause we might get our might get ourWatch at: 03:00 / 03:20shoes wet a little bit todayso today i would like to talk to you uhi'd like tosort of take you on a virtual field tripof the wonderfulolympic coast and here in the backgrounduh you can seeum an aerial shot of the point of thearches areaup in the northern part of the park andit just sort of shows you some of theWatch at: 03:20 / 03:40rugged grandeur that is uh is typifiedby the olympic coast um souh olympic national park just asbackground i'm sure all of you know thisbut we're close to a million acres 922odd thousand acres of national park twounitsuh won that rugged mountainous core inthe middle and then that 65 mile coastalWatch at: 03:40 / 04:00stripon the outer coast uh which is bracketedof course to the northum by the macaw reservation and to thesouthby the quinault indian reservation andthen there are two smaller reservationssort of embedded inthere's the quality of reservation andthen the ho reservation and these ofcourse tribes have been here forWatch at: 04:00 / 04:20millennia for over 10 000 yearsand are an integral part of our coastalecosystem tooum so that's just a general backgroundin the park but i guessmy question to you is i'm gonna askseveral questions during the course ofthisand one question is have you ever beento olympic national parkWatch at: 04:20 / 04:40uh there is no right or wrong answerwell maybe there is you should be hereand if you haven't been here you shouldcome hereso we'll wait uh a couple of secondshere tosee whether folks uh have uh been hereto olympic national parkso um and in the meantime while we'rewaiting for folks to weighin uh the background to thisWatch at: 04:40 / 05:00slide here that black and knobbly thinguh just sort of wondering whether uh ohwow84 of the people have been here and 16have notthat is great um and so hopefully uhat the tail end of this uh uh this thistalkuh we'll have convinced more of you touh to come hereWatch at: 05:00 / 05:20so uh you'll see this background againand uh at the tail end of the talkuh in that in your chat box if you cansort of tell me forextra credit uh what you think thatis all right but onward umthe olympic coast is uh is it certainlyis a wonderful place it's the longestWatch at: 05:20 / 05:40stretch of wilderness coastline in thelower 48 statesit is truly unlike the coastlines ofcaliforniaand oregon if for no other reason it'sunlike that because it is largely aroadless coast so in this map that yousee here all the redlines are our roads and on the southernWatch at: 05:40 / 06:00part of the park you can see thathighway 101 comes right along the roadright along the uh the coastal strip butthen it divesinland and for the northern threequarters of the parkthere are essentially no roads that gothat go along it there's one road thatgoes into the pushand and uh the rialto beach area thatcomes rightWatch at: 06:00 / 06:20the spur road that comes right into thecoast but then up to the north aroundlake goes thatthat stop that road stops at the ozetranger station which is a three milewonderful coastal hike boardwalk hike tothe coastbut there are vast stretches of thecoastline that do not have a road thatgoes along it as a matter of factmost of that coastline doesn't even haveWatch at: 06:20 / 06:40a trail that goes along ituh there are no trails on the outercoast save forshort bits of uh of trail that go aroundimpassable headlands and we have many ofthose in passable headlandsso coastal travel is truly a wildernessand rugged experiences about 75 percentWatch at: 06:40 / 07:00of thethe coastal strip is congressionallydesignated wildernesswhereas 95 of the park coast wide ascongressionally designated oneness butas you can see from these slidesthat whether you're walking on thegravel beach of rialtoor around uh around killer point here inthese boulder fieldsthat uh that it is truly coastal hikingWatch at: 07:00 / 07:20and it's a very different experiencefrommore southern locations so the nextquestion that i have for you folksis have you ever hiked on the olympiccoastand uh uh so we'll wait uh we'll wait acouple seconds for for people to weighWatch at: 07:20 / 07:40in on this uh you should be practicedwith your uhyour your clicking at this point uh sohave you everhiked on the olympic coast because asas remote as it is it is stillfairly accessible all right sixtypercent of you said that you haveand forty percent said that you haven'tso for those forty percent that haven'tWatch at: 07:40 / 08:00hopefully uh once again this will getyou to come on outand uh for those sixty percent of youthat have wellcome on back as i mentioned this is awilderness coastline here is a wonderfulphoto taken by acolleague of mine florian graner uhwhich is an aerial photo ofum uh around the norwegian memorialWatch at: 08:00 / 08:20uh part of the northern coastline uh upon the uh on the horizon you can seelake ozet thereand you can see truly this is a ruggedcoastline one of the things that is thehallmarkof the olympic national park in thecoast in particularis that of diversity itWatch at: 08:20 / 08:40is a diverse place and the coastal stripis diversein terms of habitats and then it's alsodiverse in terms of biologyit's a very biologically biodiverseplaceso one of the things i like about thislandsat photo here is that you can seethe entirety of the olympic peninsulaWatch at: 08:40 / 09:00and justfrom the color patterns of thevegetation the terrestrial vegetationyou can see the outline of the park notonly can you see the outline of the parkbut also of the coastal stripand that actually i think speaks to abroader point which is hownational parks have really becomeislands ofwilderness in this ever-changing worldWatch at: 09:00 / 09:20on the west end of the peninsula you canseevast tracts of land that have beenmodified by uhby forestry development and then over inthe puget sound area in the northolympic peninsula you can seeuh residential development but you cansee the coastal strip also thereand the coastal strip has this hugediversity of habitatsand i'm going to sort of walk youWatch at: 09:20 / 09:40through these habitats all the way fromoffshore islands and rocky platforms tosand beachesand i just want to go back to the slidefor one second just to say that there'sa general trend on the olympic coastand habitat wise that the southern coastis relativelysandy and the northern coast isrelatively rockybut there's a lot of diversity in termsWatch at: 09:40 / 10:00of how thatuh that occurs now when magellan in1520 came through the uh the southerntipof uh of of south america in the straitsthat now bear his name and first sawwhat we call the pacific ocean he namedit the pacific ocean ammar pacificaWatch at: 10:00 / 10:20and well that was a misnomer for surebecause if there's one thing that weknow about the pacific is that it's nota pacifyingbody of water it would probably havebeen more appropriate to call it themalefic as in uh disturbing almost bysupernatural meansuh and indeed the pacific is super andnatural so i think that uh that that'sWatch at: 10:20 / 10:40probably not gonna catch on butit is not a pacifying body of water itis a verywave swept tough harsh taskmasterof an ocean and thatthat uh that physical environment reallyaffects andactually has shaped the entire olympicWatch at: 10:40 / 11:00coast and so wein this broad diversity of habitats thatwe have we haverocky benches that are wave swept andconstantly beaten by the oceanand and here is a an example of some ofthese rocky benches around circle pointchilean memorial is a little bit to thenorth circle point is just north of uhhole in the wall or rialto beach andWatch at: 11:00 / 11:20then we also have rocky platforms downin the southern part of the park thatare more sanddominated this is beach trail 4 or orthe starfish point area avery accessible area with wonderful tidepoolsand what's remarkable about this rockyarea is that you can see that as sandbeach all around it and if you actuallylook in the water there you see a lot ofWatch at: 11:20 / 11:40wave-bornesand and once again not only do we havethis ocean that's relentlesslysmacking up against the shore but inthis southern portionwe actually have a lot of wave-bornesand that is scouring the rockand this has profound implications forthe organisms that live therethe things that live on the rockyWatch at: 11:40 / 12:00shoreline and the southernuh sand dominated portion of the parkare have a different community structurethan in sort of the morerocky northern areas and then we alsohave these vastboulder field areas this is aroundtaylor point you can see these bouldersare justencrusted with organisms and theseWatch at: 12:00 / 12:20bouldersdo move but since they're so big ittakes really big seasreally big oceans to actually move themand so they're relatively stablebut they can be unstable sometimes andget moved aroundand and create gaps for organismsthen we also have cobble beaches thingsthat are are sort ofsub boulder size and this is a niceWatch at: 12:20 / 12:40cobble beachover by mosquito creek a very remotearea of the uh the mid to southern partof the coastlineand you'll notice that this looks verydifferent we actuallydon't have these these cobbles that areencrusted byorganisms and it's because the waveaction moves them around anawful lot and so there's a lot ofWatch at: 12:40 / 13:00physical disturbance that uh thatthat really inhibits the growth ofplants and animals on these things butyetif you looked at the the areas inbetween thesethese cobbles there are still a lot oforganisms that that live there and callit homeand of course uh this is a broaderpicture of a little bit north of theWatch at: 13:00 / 13:20norwegian memorial area and what i likeabout this photo is that this shows younot only do you have this sort oflinear set of habitats along the coastrocky cobbles sand beachesbut also within a stretch of shorelineyou have rocky platform down lower andthen you have sand in gravel and cobbleWatch at: 13:20 / 13:40sometimes up right along the shorelineand this photo also shows youthat linkages between the near shore andthe intertidalhere you see this these uh these kelpforeststhat are offshore that are very nearshore and i'll be talking about that alittle bitin a little bit in terms of some ofthose biological linkages that occurWatch at: 13:40 / 14:00uh across these habitats and then ofcourse we have these gravel beaches andrialtotypifies that uh these vast gravelbeaches that areare relatively uh depropriate in termsof the number of organisms that theyhavebut for the organisms that are theresuch as surf smelt that userialto for spawning they're veryWatch at: 14:00 / 14:20important habitatsand then of course we have our low anglehigh energy sandy beaches that are arereallyexemplified by the southern coast lineand this is the clay lock area and youcan see these lowsandy beaches that are just great forwalkingWatch at: 14:20 / 14:40they are chalk a block full of organismsthat live downin the sand razor clams that are hereand a variety of other organisms and youcan see actually this isdone during it this photo was takenduring a razor clam dig inuh from years back and uh and so peopleare frequently able to get out there toenjoy these areasWatch at: 14:40 / 15:00and of course another feature habitatfeature of our coastis the often prolific driftwood that isoccurs there our our coastal riversare constantly belching out large piecesof wood and of coursethis is an eroding coastline and as youcan see by the bluffWatch at: 15:00 / 15:20up here that trees come right up alongthis eroding bluff and then recruit downinto the ocean and get worked by thetidesand these these uh these this largewoody debris these logs provideuh a really important habitat for avariety of organismsthat live in the upper beach uh and alsoWatch at: 15:20 / 15:40they provide a certain level of armoringand protection of the beachalso you can see that uh this is a sandybeach and this upper portion has a lotof cobble on it toookay and then to sort of round out ourour sort ofhabitat inventory once again we go backto point of archesbecause we have in the parkWatch at: 15:40 / 16:00approximately 490offshore islands and and also sea stacksand sohere you can see a variety of theseoffshore islands off ofpoint of the arches and sea stacksso another question just make sureyou're uh you're still with meis uh when you are hiking on the coastWatch at: 16:00 / 16:19should you pay attention to the tidesshould you plan for the tidesare the tides an important aspect to thecoastso we'll just uh sort of wait here for asecond to seewhat uh what folks think either yes noor i don't knowand once again draw your attention tothat background imageWatch at: 16:19 / 16:40what do you think that iscurious all right the results are in yesa resoundingresounding yes 98 of you said that youshould definitely pay attention to thetidesand you definitely should for tworeasons one if you come during a hightideyou might not see as much of thegrandeur of the coast if you're justWatch at: 16:40 / 17:00looking at under high tide but alsothere's a really importantsafety uh tip here which is that if youare hiking on theon the coast particularly going aroundthe rocky headlandsthat you want to make sure that you uhare paying attention to the tidesbecause if youget caught by the tides that can be alife-threatening thingso the tides are certainly something toWatch at: 17:00 / 17:20pay attention towhen you're out on the coast both froman aesthetic standpointand from a safety standpoint okaydestruction island this is one of ouroffshore islands a magnificent islandwith an incredible rocky inner tidalzone that's approximately three milesoff ofclay lock this is an old uh there is anWatch at: 17:20 / 17:40olduh and historic lighthouse on thisislandand then also we have a variety as imentioned the 490 oddother offshore islands now theseoffshore islands are actuallyupland portions are managed by the fishand wildlife serviceas fish and wildlife refuges howeverthey are within the national park andWatch at: 17:40 / 18:00the intertidal zoneof these areas are actually managed bythe national park serviceand these intertidal zones are arereally cool spots but they're alsorelatively inaccessible so they uh theytheyact as sort of uh de facto marinereserves if you willand this is another uh a shot of a seaWatch at: 18:00 / 18:20stack this is an iconicpart of the olympic coast here you seehole in the wall juston the northern part of rialto beachwith its iconicsea stacks now in terms of to round outour discussion of habitat diversity herei love this particular aerial photo ofWatch at: 18:20 / 18:40the point of the archesand one of the things that i like aboutthis is that this encapsulatesthe diversity of habitats in olympicnational parkone of the things is that not only do wehave these diverse habitatsbut these diverse habitats are reallyclose together so here you havethe tail end of shai shy beach off tothe left and then you have the centralWatch at: 18:40 / 19:00cove here in point of the arches whichis sort of a rocky platform cobbley sandand gravel areaand then you have this more rocky areato the to theto the uh to the south over to the rightand one of the things that you see notonly that you have all these habitatscrunched right together but also lookWatch at: 19:00 / 19:20how the coastal ocean interacts with itout here you see once again that waveborn sandoff of the sandy beach and even in thismid areayou see a lot of wave-borne sand andsedimentthat is pummeling these organisms thatarein this area and then over to the righthereto the south you see you don't seeWatch at: 19:20 / 19:40nearly as much of that wave-borne sandbecause this area is not sand dominatedso this this photo i think reallybeautifully encapsulates the diversityof physical environmentsand and habitats that that that reallyare key for the biological diversitythat is represented in olympic nationalWatch at: 19:40 / 20:00park and of course as i mentionedthe coast is ever eroding those offshoreislandsand the the sea stacks once upon a timewere part of the coastline and thatcoastline is eroding because of therelentless beatof the pacific ocean and also becausethis is a rain forest coastline so weWatch at: 20:00 / 20:20get an inordinate amount of rain over90 to 130 inches of rain on the coastand this ground gets saturated and youcan see in some of these slides herehow that that saturated ground justleads to to mass wasting or failure ofthe groundand and once again recruiting an awfulWatch at: 20:20 / 20:40lot of trees and woodinto the uh into the intertidalenvironment and those trees alsoplay an important function in terms ofthen smacking up against rocky habitatinand destroying organisms and makingpatches fornew organisms to settle and of course uhsome of the things that we some of theiconic things that we think thatWatch at: 20:40 / 21:00uh that are persistent always on thecoastlineare not this is a a c stack on thenorthern part of rialto beach this ishow it historically lookedi'll point you out to this little seastack to the right and thenseveral years ago that sea stack finallygave in to the uh the calling of thepacific oceanWatch at: 21:00 / 21:20and broke and fell and that happenedduring the uh the late winter and itmust have made a heck of a noise when itcame downbecause this thing is the size of acouple city busesokay enough about habitat a little bitabout biological diversityuh the olympic coast is a biodiversityWatch at: 21:20 / 21:40hot spoton the west coast there are more specieswhere arguably more speciesof macroinvertebrates marineinvertebrates and seaweedson the olympic coast that's 60 milesstretched 65 mile stretch than any otherplace in the entire west coast of northamericafrom alaska down to panama it truly isWatch at: 21:40 / 22:00a remarkable intertidal zone that zonebetween the high tides and the low tidesand here in thisin this slide you can see that thisrocky surfaceis just encrusted with an amazingdiversityof marine invertebrates and seaweeds anda little bit earlierWatch at: 22:00 / 22:20i showed the background to this slidewith theoffshore uh kelp forest but one of thethings that i wanted to sort of drivehomeis that there really is this linkagebetween the intertidal zoneand the near shore zone because most ofthose organismsthat are encrusting and living on thecoast actually haveWatch at: 22:20 / 22:40complex life histories a complex lifecycle so while their adult stage may beencrusted to the rockthey have a larval stage which actuallylives in the waterin the water column and can dispersetens to hundreds of kilometersand here you see an adult barnacle thatproducesfrom eggs there's not least it'sWatch at: 22:40 / 23:00juvenile stageand it goes through another stage themetamorphosis not unlike a butterflyand then eventually this cyprid finds aplace and where it glues itself down byits head and undergoes anothermetamorphosisinto the adult barnacle fascinating lifecycle uh it makes our human life cyclesWatch at: 23:00 / 23:20looklike paltry by comparison okaybiodiversity hot spot we have over 536species of invertebrates on ourcoastlinesfrom sea stars uh from sun stars toto uh nudibranchs or sea slugsto uh sea anemones a giant pacificoctopus and of course razor clams andWatch at: 23:20 / 23:40then up in this farright slide where you see thesebarnacles i wish we had more timebecause i would like to ask youhow many different species of thingsthat you can see just in thisliterally three inch by three inch patchof the intertidalwe don't have time for that but i'lljust tell you there are over 12 speciesin thereWatch at: 23:40 / 24:00so one of the things i like to do in theintertidal is just go downsit down and look at one little patch ofrock and try to seehow many different types of things evenif you don't know what those things arehow many different types of things arethere okay and we have a sea star richcoastwe have the ochre sea star the originalkeystone predatorthis lower slide here to the lower leftWatch at: 24:00 / 24:20shows sea stars justoverwhelming muscles they are voraciouspredatorsin slow motion there is just wailing andlamentation right there going on if youcould hear itit is it is a dog-eat-dog world outthereand we have three different color morphsof this uh this okra sea starpiezaster and in this next slide hereWatch at: 24:20 / 24:40you can see that thereone there's there's this this commonphenomenon that when you look out in therocky intertidal zoneyou can see these different horizontalbands of organismsthat's called intertidal zonation andthat intertidal zone nationreally is determined by two thingsbiological interactions at the lower endWatch at: 24:40 / 25:00and on the upper end by physiologicaltolerancesheat desiccation being dried out becauseonce again these are animals are areliving inin this is the zone that is a mixturebetween the aquatic marineand the terrestrial land world and inthis loweruh this this left-hand slide here youWatch at: 25:00 / 25:20can see a variety of thesethese ochre sea stars that are foragingand the muscle bedwhich is their preferred prey itemyou'll see that you can almostdrew a line here at this point and theydon't venture above that linebecause of these physiologicaltolerances above that lineit's a little too dry it's a little tooWatch at: 25:20 / 25:40hot for sea starsso they have foraged and cleared offeverythingmuscle-wise below that line but therethey arewaiting at that line for their meal ahfascinating and of course this keystonepredator conceptwas uh was it's a foundationaluh concept in ecology and was uh wasWatch at: 25:40 / 26:00was brought to the world by the lategreat umbob payne from from the university ofwashington got to give a shout out tobob payneand of course we have a variety of othersea stars from leather starsto bat stars to uh several differentspecies of blood starsthe sunflower star this middle lower oneWatch at: 26:00 / 26:20and then sun stars an amazing diversityof sea starsand well let's not just uh let's notjust focus on invertebratesif you go down into the lower intertidalzone or even the uppertidal zone you enter a dr seussian worldof of seaweeds where there is just thisWatch at: 26:20 / 26:40amazing diversity ofmorphologies or body types of seaweedsand all of theseprovide food and shelterfor animals too includingover 65 species of fish in theintertidal zonesome of these fish are obligatelythey're always in the intertidal zoneWatch at: 26:40 / 27:00and some of them just are visitors tothe intertidal zone either when it'sthe tide is in or sometimes when thetide is out so we have fish likethis uh uh this uh snailfish up to onthe upper leftand you'll notice that it has itspectoral fins it'sthe equivalent of its arms are modifiedWatch at: 27:00 / 27:20to form asuction cup and if you can see adifferent uh vantage point on thisit is it is a flattened fish it's madeforit has evolved to be able to to suckitself down onrocks so that while waves are sweepingover it can stay thereand be a sit and wait predator you cansee that it's basically allmouth and then we have variety ofWatch at: 27:20 / 27:40eel-like critters and evenover here in the lower right you can seethat there is a juvenile rockfish sothisthe intertidal zone of olympic nationalpark is important habitatfor for commercially important speciesthat are found offshoreoffshore and uh of course all of theseorganisms have a variety of interestingWatch at: 27:40 / 28:00behaviors here we seea wonderful shot of clitoral amphipodsor beach hoppers if you've ever gone outto some of our sandy beaches you seethese things hopping around all over theplaceand here are two males involved infisticuffs orantler cuffs do with each other and uhof coursemy wife uh provided me with a slide ofWatch at: 28:00 / 28:20uh the great roosevelt elkdoing the same thing now beach hoppershave been around a lot longer than elkso i i think that maybe the elk got thisidea from the beach hoppersi don't know i'm just throwing it outtherewe also have a variety of uh vertebratesuh that use the coastline the coastlineWatch at: 28:20 / 28:40is really important for birds eitherfor uh for migrating birds and oralso for for uh for people forfor birds that call this place theirhome all the timethese are one of my favorite birds theblack oyster catcherthat are out here foraging on a musclebed down in theWatch at: 28:40 / 29:00starfish point area and of course uh youknowit it wouldn't be a talk if you didn'tshow something nice and furry andcharismaticand we get a variety of intertidalvisitors from the terrestrial here thereis auh coyote that has come down to foragein the intertidal and frequently we willalso getdeer and sometimes elk in the intertidalWatch at: 29:00 / 29:20because they like eating the seaweedbecause it is very salty and they needsalt and uh oh what the heck let's showsome sea otters also sea otters wereextirpated on our coastlinein the early 1900s but in the 1970s theywerereintroduced to our coastline and theyhave been taking off like gangbusters wehave over 3000 sea ottersWatch at: 29:20 / 29:40on our coastline particularly arounddestruction island is a hotbedand that's where i took this photo ofthese cute and cuddly creatures whichareimportant predators on intertidalorganisms and helpkeep that intertidal balanceokay so uh a question for you folksi have a question of what intertidalWatch at: 29:40 / 30:00organisms from this listmight you expect to see on the olympiccoasti'll give you several minutes here thereare anemones barnaclesum octopus i don't know let's let's seewhat people think you canyou can check those off and uh we'll seeuhwe'll see what you might expect to seeWatch at: 30:00 / 30:20on the olympic coastoh my gosh i've only got four minutesleft good thing i'm almost doneand also keep in mind what is that imageon the back of this slide i don't knowis it the moonWatch at: 30:20 / 30:40mars aerial photoi don't know okay it looks like theresults arein people say we should seealmost all actually the correct answerarguablyis all of the above although i'm not sosure about octopus yeah actually you cansee octopus they come hereWatch at: 30:40 / 31:00definitely okay nextat this point i would like to sort ofshift away fromuh from this overview of the biologyand the the uh the structure the habitatstructure of the olympic coasthopefully i've impressed upon you thatit is a wonderful beautiful diverseplaceand i'd like to talk about a aWatch at: 31:00 / 31:20significant threatthat actually is impacting or is likelyto impactthe uh as impacting and will continue toimpact thebiota this this biodiverse area on theolympic coast and this is oceanacidificationocean acidification by the way i wouldhave to give a shout out to washington'snational park fundbecause the work that we're doing onWatch at: 31:20 / 31:40ocean acidificationit would not be possible and would nothave been possible without the strongsupport of the fundthat helped to initiate uh and continuesome of that workso we're really appreciative of that ofthat help so ocean acidification in itsessence is thedecrease in the ph of of seawaterand this is a result of largelyWatch at: 31:40 / 32:00of anthropogenic or human-causedactivity where we have burned a lotof fossil fuels and put an inordinateamount of co2 in the atmosphereand the the the world likes to be inbalance and when there's too much co2 inthe atmospherea lot of that co2 gets squeezed out orWatch at: 32:00 / 32:20pushed out of the atmosphere and goesinto balancewith the ocean which is a big sponge andso a lot of that co2dissolves into the ocean and that co2reacts with waterand forms a weak acid carbonic acidwhich then makes the ocean a little bitmore city now ocean acidification is abit of a misnomer becausesea water the ph scale goes from 0 to 14Watch at: 32:20 / 32:39and seawater is uh is is greater thanuh seven so seawater is basicallyuh well it's basic and uh oceanacidificationreally should be called theunbasification ofof the ocean but that's a very unwieldything off the tongue so let's go withWatch at: 32:39 / 33:00ocean acidificationthis upper slide one of two data slidesi'm going to show you basically showsthis long-term data setfrom off of hawaii and the red lineshows from 1958 to present day this everincreasing concentration of co2 in theatmospherethe green sets of lines showsWatch at: 33:00 / 33:20the ever increasing concentration of co2inseawater once again that balance thingand thenthe blue line shows a decrease in phthat is the acidification of the seawaterso this is a smoking gun this ishappeningnow on the olympic coast all almost allof our organismsWatch at: 33:20 / 33:39are at threat at some level to oceanacidificationso since 2015 we have been conductingocean acidificationacidification research and monitoringand here you can see uhat at circle point on the mid coast wehave instrumentsthat are put into an instrument packagein thein a tide pool and this is that tideWatch at: 33:39 / 34:00pool at low tide on the upper rightand then at high tide these these tidepools are this ishigher or not the highest tide becauseit's not safe to be out thereat high tide these these pools arecompletely coveredand are are are essentially near shoreocean waterand then we also go out and visit theseuh these sites and download and maintainWatch at: 34:00 / 34:20these instruments and take water samplesthat we then analyze backat the seafoam lab the center for oceanacidification monitoringthat i run here at olympic national parkuhit's uh it's a little bit wordy but itmakes a nice acronymand uh these are some of the data uh andthisone data slide is all i really want toWatch at: 34:20 / 34:40show you on this andthe point that i want you to get out ofthis this has to do with uhcalcium carbonate saturation state andthe whole point hereis that if the number is above onecalcium carbonate is available fororganisms to makeshells out of if it's below one there'snot enough in the waterWatch at: 34:40 / 35:00and the water actually steals that fromorganisms and at 1.5that blue line what you see is that isa line where below that line actuallyjuvenile bivalves like muscles and clamshave a hard time making that initialshell and the whole point here is that alot of the timeWatch at: 35:00 / 35:20you can see that our saturation statefor calcium carbonateis below one or both of those linesso we are already beginning to see andfeel those impactsand those impacts will likely uhtranslate toour biological communities okay welli'm a minute over john i'm gonna i'mWatch at: 35:20 / 35:40gonnawrap it up here and i would be happy totake any questions that anyone mighthave i really appreciate your attentionand uh hopefully i've impressed upon youthe grandeur of the olympic coastthank you very much thanks steve reallyappreciate that tour of the coast i haveto sayum for my wife and i uh the olympicWatch at: 35:40 / 36:00coast is one of the biggestbonuses of living in washington state itis just our favorite placeum so thanks for taking us on that tourum i have got a couple questions but i'mgoing to invite the rest ofyou if you've got questions for steve toWatch at: 36:00 / 36:20type theminto the q and a box and we'll get to asmany as we canbut steve i'm wondering if you want tokick us off by telling us what thatimage wasthat image was the surfaceof a piezaster of an ochre sea star andright there on thatimage what you see is you can see someWatch at: 36:20 / 36:40of the gillsand you can also see some of the spineson it andyou can also see that white blotch waswhat's called the modroperite which isthe porethat allows water to enter it so thatthey can move around they have thishydraulic system that allows them tomove around sovery cool well and i noticed in our chatWatch at: 36:40 / 37:00box uhseveral folks um got that right so goodgood good guesses folks or it soundslike a lot of you knewwhich is great you know your coast umi've got one question and then i see afew coming in here thatwe can turn to so you you mentioned thepacific ocean is a harsh taskmaster of an ocean i love that umWatch at: 37:00 / 37:20yet at the same time we've got morespecies living along the coast thenbasicallyanywhere else or at least invertebratesand huge number of seaweedsand those intertidal fish that you'retalking about how can they deal withthis totally totally harsh environmentwell that's a great question and the wayWatch at: 37:20 / 37:40they can deal with itis they've had a long time to come upwith creative solutionsone of the things that i love aboutecology isuh his life history ecology is that thatno matter where you go on earth not onlyin on the olympic coast but no matterwhere you go on earth organismshave adapted and figured out waysWatch at: 37:40 / 38:00of making a living in the mostinhospitable placesand while the pacifi while the pacificocean and our coastline isinhospitable particularly to us uhand oftentimes the organisms that livethere they've had millions of years toevolvethere and uh and and soWatch at: 38:00 / 38:20that's how they've been able to do itlife started in the ocean so they haveactually had a much longer time sayrelative tolakes or even even dry land to come upwith creative solutionsand i wish there was more time to talkaboutall the creative solutions that theseorganisms have come up withbecause it it really is mind-bogglingWatch at: 38:20 / 38:40wowyeah yeah and they've had that jumpstart if life started in the oceanthat's greatum a couple questions are coming in umparticularly aroundsea star wasting disease status therewhat's going onwell sea star wasting disease is uh isstillon our coastline and and once again iwish i had had a little bit more time toWatch at: 38:40 / 39:00talk about thatuh but uh sea star wasting disease isstill occurring on our coastlineuh it was a remarkable event started in2013uh it actually was first observed on theolympiccoast and then uh the observations of itspreadwith the disease spread elsewhere itdidn't necessarily spread from theWatch at: 39:00 / 39:20olympic coast but was firstobserved here on the olympic coast atany rate umwhat's remarkable about sea star wastingdisease is the number of species that'saffectedover 20 different sea stars thegeographic scope of it from alaska allthe way down to bajaand the temporal uh aspect of it thetime wise from 2013 and it's still thereWatch at: 39:20 / 39:40nownow the good thing is is that by andlarge it ishas really dampened down only aboutmaybetwo percent two to three percent of ourpopulation ofuh pizza or the ochre sea star showsigns of it we still see itit's actually at the level now that ifit had always been at this levelWatch at: 39:40 / 40:00we might not have noticed it yeah andbutyou know at its at its heyday on ourcoastline about 60 percent of thepiezaster population was afflicted by itwe lost about 50 percent of ourpopulation our coastline did relativelywellcompared to other places where the seastars were extirpatedso our coastline is doing pretty wellWatch at: 40:00 / 40:20for pizza there is one sea star thati showed the sunflowers he startedpicnic podium helium 30swhich is a soft body sea star that getsthe size of a manhole coverand that we have not seen an adultpicnia an adult sunflower sea star onour coastline and i've been lookingWatch at: 40:20 / 40:40since 2013. twice i've seen juvenilesbut i've not seen an adult and they usedto be very commonand so there has got to be an effectthey're a low intertidalalmost subtitle one and so ourmonitoring doesn't won't really pick upthose impactsbut there has to be an effect of nothaving those organs wrongwow um i think we've got time for oneWatch at: 40:40 / 41:00more questionare you seeing any other climate relatedimpacts affecting intertidal communitiesbesides ocean acidificationwell you know one always has to becareful when talking about climaterelated impacts becauseclimate related impacts to certainextent are most visible when lookingWatch at: 41:00 / 41:20backon long periods of time so with thatcaveatone of the things that we have seen andthe reason being is because there are avariety ofof oceanographic cycles that occur ondecadalor multi-decadal time periods or eventhings like uhlike like um el nino events and thingslike that that happen on shorter timeWatch at: 41:20 / 41:40scalesthat that can create sort of falsesignals but one of the things that wehave seen and and there is data tosuggest this is that thefrequency and magnitude of storm eventsof wavinesshas increased on our coastline and weare seeingincreased areas of erosion going on onour coastWatch at: 41:40 / 42:00and so uh that i imagine if thatcontinues that we'llprobably begin to see some other impactsthat affect uh some of the biota andcertainly the habitatsokay great well umin an effort to get us out of here ontime at 12 45i think we'll wrap it up soWatch at: 42:00 / 42:20steve thanks so much again for uhwalking us down the olympic coast thatwas truly incredible soreally appreciate it thank you forhaving me umso as we mentioned before washington'snational park fund has beeninstrumental in supporting a lot of thiswork and steve was even talking aboutWatch at: 42:20 / 42:40the the park fund's impact on his ownwork with ocean acidificationlast year washington's national parkfund was able to give650 000 to our three national parksso it's really been a pleasure to workwith the parks and enable some of thisworkwe invite you to join us on futureWatch at: 42:40 / 43:00virtual field trips in two weeks onseptember 2ndwe'll be featuring a field trip calledbear necessitieswhich will be about what what you shoulddo if you meet a bear in the in the wildand how to avoid them so for moreinformationuh and to sign up for for future futureWatch at: 43:00 / 43:20field tripsgo to uh wnpf.orgfield dash tripand sign up there um and if you'reinterested in supporting any of our workat the funduh we invite you to check out ourwebsite wnpf.orgWatch at: 43:20 / 43:40and with that i think we will wish youall a great afternoonand we hope to see you next time takecaretake care folks stay safe

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