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SearchThisVideo: Parallel Session 2 – Day 2 – Global Symposium on Soil Biodiversity 2021

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good morning
um good afternoon good evening
um dear participants
i would like to welcome you all to the
parallel session 2
of the 2021
global symposium on soil biodiversity
it is a great honor to be here
with all of you today my name is

rosa cuevas and i will be moderating
this to our session
uh during the first hour we will be
um to four presentations
of 10 minutes each i will
kindly remind the presenters
to keep to the 10 minutes so that we can
have time
for the q a

sessions uh at minute
nine of your intervention i will let you
know that there is one minute
left in order to have time
to discuss and before
starting i kindly ask you all of you to
check the zoom chat
as some roles and information on this
session will be now
a post for the q

um qa session
uh please use the chat to po to
the chat story to post uh your questions
and include um at the beginning um
the name of the presenter and to whom
your question is addressed we will
choose a few questions
to be answered leave and the rest will
be answered

via chat the host of the meeting is
julia sheldon um
she is here to help you uh for any
technical issues
so uh issues so please do not hesitate
to write to her directly using the
message with our without a
further ado i would like
um to give the floor

to mrs
from france uh with the title of the
soil biodiversity from science uh to
feedback from two decades decades of
indicators development as agricultural
management tool

thank you rosa can you hear me yes
yes i will try to share the screen
um hope it will be good
where is my presentation sorry
maybe you have it um
it will be here's your um okay
can you see it
it's okay yes

could you share the screen the um
in the presentation i try
is it okay here yes perfect okay thank
you so hi everyone i'm norway
from the french biodiversity agency and
i speak today on behalf of my quarters
and i give i will give you a feedback of
two decades of
seoul bioindicators development as
agricultural management
and most of those works are the results

collaboration between researchers french
ministry in charge of
agriculture and the one charge of
and there are two french environmental
the agency for ecological transition and
the french biodiversity agency though i
will not be able to present you in
details to
all the different projects so if you
have any question
you can contact us uh at the end of the
presentation or later and

i put all the i put some uh contact at
the end of the presentation
so why do we need to study serve
biodiversity so bio university is part
of the solution
to the two most pressing challenges of
our time
biodiversity loss and climate changes
and the concept of
soils has been defined as the capacity
soil function as a living and dynamic
a healthy soil also contribute to um

contribute to many ecosystems function
for example
for contribute to the mitigation of
climate changes by maintaining or
increasing its carbon content
recently a mission board of
the european commission for soil ales
and food
submitted a target of 75
of healthy soil in european union by
and preservation of salt so is no longer
an option

and it is one stake of the french
biodiversity plan
but so we introduce the concept of soil
of soil health but how do we diagnose
a parallel can be done to human health
to set diagnosis
doctors use different sets of indicators
to determine
symptoms of signs of specific disease or
to follow the health of the court
monitoring can be used it helps for
example to gain knowledge of factors of

transmission to gain references of
new medicines for example and when new
tools or treatments are available medici
the medical community has to be trained
to update the diagnosis
so oops sorry for soils
this device can easily be easily be
in fact in france the implementation
of the french biodiversity plan is built
on severance initiative

launch the last two decades to explore
seoul biodiversity and to develop
indicators relevant
for soil quality and unused decision
different projects were dedicated to
developments of soul bio indicators
and their applicability to assess all
for example the program bioindicators at
objective uh to promote the
standardization of bioindicators to

monitor soul quality and to identify
relevant indicators for ecological risk
here are presented sets of indicators
that can be used for monitoring
agricultural soils
and also can be used to manage sole or
getting better
or agricultural practices
another example is a group of experts
published a guidance
at the demon of the french ministry of

and that guidance inventories the most
usable bioindicators
and tools that can be used by farmers by
to assess and their organic
and biological states of soil
at large scale indicators can be
implemented in monitoring network to
assess their soul quality to gain
references values and also to monitor

the states
of uh sole biodiversity
in france inventories of on soil
microbial biomass and bacterial
communities were conducted at the
national level
based on the french soil quality network
it represents around 2200 sites
for all major land uses and it permitted
for example
the production of the first french atlas
seoul bacterial community and it's
presented here on the right of the

and also a new initiative is actually in
it's a sole biodiversity survey based on
the french soil quality network also
and it will be presented tomorrow by
kamiyah bear
during the station three sim one
in addition to research programs
participatory networks are also on the
it's another way to gain amount of data

uh throughout the territory and
repeatedly over time
and it's also another way to alert an
and training tools and alerts to
citizens farmers professional
and soul preservation for example
in france volunteer professionals and
are encouraged to participate to the
to the observatory of earthworms and
the agricultural observatory of
if you want some information you can

directly go to
the sites that are indicated here
and uh as we say before uh
in training is also uh
and sharing is a big part of the
of the use of uh of indicators
in fact to be used indicators need to be
known to be usable
and also to be understood so transfer
from research to
end users are essential and training

is uh one of the key step a
collaborative project
called agrinov project has involved
researchers on biology unsolved
bioindicators with a network of
250 farmers and it has developed
and transfer training and dashboard
indicators and sold by
biological indicators directly to
and the experimentation and monitoring

network for cultural
innovation takes over from the agreement
of project to train farmers
with the aim of changing their farming
system towards environmental and
economic sustainability
also to be the appropriation of
biological tools require that the
methods are recognized rayleigh born and
comparable so standardization is one of
the solutions
here are presented indicators
standardized at the international lower
by the isotc
190 committee

and the appropriation also of biological
tools requires the existence of a supply
market to meet the needs
in france we have a program that
supports the development of the
french industrial sector of future and
since 2014 different projects were
funding considering
sold by university services brownfield
and environmental monitoring
and last but not least we focus our
presentation on bioindicators

but to communicate with land users and
land managers
uh talking about soil function and soil
and ecosystem services are more powerful
and we can see an increasing need to
assess ecosystem services
and methods are actually in development
and are
already used by council consultants
and for information a new iso working
group on the valuation of
ecosystem and function uh provided by

seoul as his first meeting
in march 21 and if you are interested
you can contact directly my colleague
antonio bispo and i see
i think he's here today so you can ask
some question if you want and to
conclude the last two decades has
permitted the development of biological
and some are being relevant and can be
implemented to assess ecosystem function

and services of soil
but we still have work to do for example
we really need to develop an standard
the interpretation framework we need to
improve database and reference values we
also need to improve the links with
practices and to solve function and
services we also need to keep an effort
on in rising awareness and

training for example with part adversary
with participatory approach but but also
by implying notably citizens and
and here i can show you you can hear see
two erasing awareness raising of
game card games produced during a
called json and their french variation
of soluandis yes and

i'm finished and sold your andes that it
you can see
uh in french is hashtag plant and sleep
so it's another way to
to alert and uh to awareness
citizens so if you have any question you
contact us directly and thank you
for being here today and for your
thank you very much dear
nolan and also it's

interesting to know about this new iso
about the
valuation of ecosystem services
i would like to give the floor
to the next presenter um
eva mrs eva er bellamine
uh with the presentation using
environmental dna
to assess global soil biodiversity
and build a soil quality

bio indicator
please eva the the floor is yours
mrs leba

can you hear me
yes yes sorry so i think you didn't hear
the the first uh slide so i
can present it again you can see the
screen right
okay so yeah i'm ava velma i'm the
president of
argeli this is a company specialized in
the use of
environmental dna to assess biodiversity

especially in terrestrial ecosystems
so here i'm going to talk about
bioindication of soil quality based on
environmental dna so
why do we need a global indicator of
soil quality i guess everyone in the
is aware now after two days of symposium
why we need to assess corposol quality
and in the context of polluted and
degraded sites
so for example in france we have about 7
polluted sites and actually more and

more money spent
on soil restoration for example it was
more than
470 million euros in 2010
but actually we like adapted protocols
and indicators to assess
the recovery of ecosystems actually it's
quite difficult to characterize the
the biological potential of the soil at
a point in time
and to follow its restoration through
and to recover functionality so we need

to construct
dedicated indicators in link with the
ecosystem services for an efficient
of the soil compartment so those
indicators need to be standardized
reliable of course ideally inexpensive
also easily applied
so we can use of course traditional
but some of them have some limitations
for example with physical
chemical indicators looking at ph or

nitrogen carbon contents
we don't we cannot assess the level of
functionality of richness so then we
need to complement with biological
and in this case we look at richness
abundance of specific groups
bioindicator groups
usually for example animates nematodes
bacteria or fungi and
actually they can be a high temperature
and special viability
in those groups according to the soil

according to climatic conditions
we also need experts to look at the
morphological identification
and this can be quite time consuming and
quite expensive
so this is why i'm going to present now
the use of the edna meta barcoding tool
as a tool to assess biodiversity in soil
in soil quality so edna stands for
environmental dna
it is now recognized as an efficient and

reliable tool
to assess biodiversity also to detect
the presence of
target species and there are several
advantages of using this method
so first from a single analysis we can
assess the diversity of taxa
of the target group so let's take this
we collect a soil sample so this would
be like
15 grams of soil from a sample that has
been how much
nice beforehand we extract the dna
we amplify it and then we sequence it

and from the sequences that we obtain we
compare to reference databases and we
can identify the organisms
that are present in this sample so here
if we use the eukaryote primers for
example we can identify
plants animals and fungi that are
present in the center
so it's possible to standardize this
both properly and especially and this is
also quite independent of climatic

conditions or seasons
the analysis can be made without a near
priority so we don't need to know in
what organisms are present in the soils
to be able to
assess the diversity assembling the
sampling protocol is actually quite easy
fast and can be standardized
um this was back in 2012 and this was
one of the first study to look at
sword e-dna and it was comparing
botanical surveys

and e-dna-metal according so here the
size of the picture
represents the observation with the
botanical survey on the left
and the dna with a barcoding the
proportion of sequences
on the right so actually the same
species are identified with both metals
but with different proportions and
actually there was
71 plants identified with a botanical
and six of them were not identified with

the dna
so this is a limitation of the idiomatic
approach but they actually represent
less one
less than one percent of the biomass so
globally this study was a proof of
that the e-dna tool can be used as a
as a to assess plant diversity from soil
a proof of concept and now i'm going to
talk about
the pilot studies that we have conducted
mainly on polluted sites or

sites in this study the objective was to
if a dna signature can be established
from soil samples
with the objective to assess the degree
of restoration of soil quality in
polluted environments
so here we have a soil that has been
polluted with hydrocarbons and heavy
you can see on the figure on the map
actually the
the part in gray with the gravels is the
site that is being rehabilitated

we have been dictated and actually
it's uh the actions include the
spreading topsoil as well as
as well as gravels to re-establish lower
and we also have the brownfield site
where we took five samples
to compare with the rear ability heat
so we sample quadrat of one square meter
the 10 for centimeters of soil
seven samples in total corresponding to
20 pooled

subsamples and we take 15 grams of soil
and two replicates per sample then we
preserve the
soil dry using silica so it can
be preserved for several days weeks or
even months
dry before we analysis it in the lab
so in the lab we do the dna extraction
we extract
extracellular dna in this case we
amplify the dna using eukaryote primers
with four replicates for sample and then

we run ngs sequencing
the byway formatting and bio statistical
analysis can be made with the ob tools
and here i can show some of the results
so this is the taxonomic composition
of the soil samples if we take all soil
samples we can see that we get many
annelids protozoans and collaborates in
the soil
and for the plants we get we get many
monocotyledons and mosses

if we look um if we discover now the
plants and
it's already 10 minutes right
so we look at the
the statistical treatment of the data
will allow to identify
composite by indicators depending on
habitat type so
this can testify on the sun restoration
without a near priority knowledge

if we focus on collambola if we look at
the relative frequency of polymorphs
between samples we can see that the
frequency is relatively higher in the
site compared to the brownfield sites
and we can also see that
the samples structurate among
axes such as the habitat but also the
axis so it it it looks like this
columbus group responds well to
environmental variables

and to habitat or pollution type and
this can be probably considered as a
pioneer species
this is another study on a
rehabilitation site
and here the idea was to compare the
taxonomic diversity present in a soil
that has been rehabilitated
after landfill mining with a reference
soil located close to the solid site but
without any entropic activity
those measures will serve as the first
evaluation to
of the rear meditation site to be able

to monitor
in the long term the soil trajectory so
here we can see that the habitats can be
easily differentiated based on their
taxonomic competition you have the open
with with the organisms corresponding
to cornfields and you have the forest
area with organisms
corresponding to the forest
and finally another project where we
look at the return of life

in soil so here the soil was excavated
from a polluted site
and treated for the pollution such soils
usually contain very few organisms
and here we assess how life returns back
in the soil
so after mixing the soils with excavated
soils with amendments
we look at how life will come back in
the soil so we expect
first bacteria to come back then fungi
and then microfauna microphone

at the end so in the study we could see
that even after six months
the the weakness was increasing
and if we look at the excavated soil so
here in grey on this field on those
this on the left you have eukaryotes and
on the right you have bacteria
so we compare actually the excavated
soils to amendment
in brown to topsoil in gray and then we
look at those excavated soil in time
how they evolve in time so you have in

the excavated soil at t0 and then after
six months
in orange and 12 months in red we can
see here that the communities tend to
by sampling dates which means that they
can evolve
in time and at t0 they are the closest
to the one identified in the amendment
after six months or 12 months they are
actually closest to the one of sunk in
top soil so this pattern was actually
more obvious with bacteria

and then eukaryotes meaning that
probably there is a different
response time between those different
it's important to conclude every story
yeah this is the conclusion so the
dna signature can be established from
soil sample with the objective of
assessing the degree of restoration of
soil quality in polluted environments
and this can be considered as a global
indicator for biological assessments
which can be standardized inexpensive

and easily applied regardless to climate
and to finish i would like to give some
perspective so we are now beginning our
d project with our partner geotop and
to characterize the soil quantity based
on different parameters
including ecological parameters using
so this is a product that is financed by
the french ministry of environment
and you ultimately your database will
consider different types of soil

internationals case and we can correlate
dna signature
and ecosystem functions using machine
learning approaches
it can also be used in the agriculture
to contribute to the assessment of soil
biological quality
and guide agricultural practices
thank you very much for your attention
and sorry for being a bit
long and don't hesitate to contact us if
you have
any questions thank you thank you very
much uh
eva um before presenting

um the next speaker i would like to
to give the word to mr jun
muras the regional moderator
we have a technical issues and for that
reason i took
the moderation uh please um uh
june the the ward and the the floor is
okay so thank you rosa so can you hear

hello can you hear me yes okay okay so
so i'm sorry i mean actually i'm being
in the session but uh
probably no one uh did
identify me because my name is in
japanese sorry so
i'm joomla itps i'm very
happy to take over the uh the job of
rosa as a moderator continuously so
because of limited time so let's
immediately move to the next
presentation so given by mr

raul grant so the title is
integrating microbiological quality
and soil properties through score
functions to
assess land use changes in colombian
and disorders so mr laos flaw is yours


can you see my screens correctly
so we are i think we are still waiting
okay this is my
first presentation of
my phd research
and this research is learned by
university of antioquia

and is supported by epsp
from italy with the professor erica
now we got the first slide yeah yeah
please continue
okay and
basically we need to design
a way to access the soil quality
principalian and the soils in colombia

right now we have a lot of problems
the industry is like agriculture
and mining projects are using
or soils resources but we don't have
a clear measure to represent what is the
real impact
of these actions over the soil
and principally we know that the
soil quality assets is something

specific depend on the
environmental conditions and the
ecological relation
and we want to find a simple set
of indicators to assess so equality
index in
the specific case of colombian
antisocials but we want to obtain
a measure with integrality yes without
loss of information
we want to measure with representability
to a specific condition and trees

for all soil functions with the
capacity to differentiate different
degrees of perturbation or land uses
but the most important that we want to
obtain with
our so equality measure is
a measure with the capacity to show
early warnings
or a signal of impacts also with a
simple interpretation
it's complex try to integrate a lot of

measure that we consider important
but what is the correct way to integrate
and show
a clear result about the soil condition
and obviously
without low cost because the idea is
right to implement this measure
in big areas and territories like
municipalities like departments like
countries and tired and to try to obtain
a fierce landscape a fierce

measure of the national trade conditions
we it's electric areas
to make a pilot study
in the central area of colombia
in the department of antioquia we select
three municipalities called la seja
an indigado and we find three areas

which represent all land use like
agricultural areas
mining projects and non-perturbed areas
the idea was to find
in a big set of simple measure and low
cost measure
yes a minimum data set to measure cell
quality index
in colombia we want an
index based on microbial indicators we
want to integrate microbial indicators

in the component of
discipline quality measure soil
properties and environmental variables
and the other souls were selected
because it are it is the soils more
treated in colombia
a lot of mining projects are
working in this kind of soils and
the principal institute of agriculture
is affected a lot these areas

and we measure every point
we select 90 points in three
and we measure environmental variables
using a meteorological station we
measure some
um physical chemical properties like ph
and tds also
um soil organic carbon and soil moisture

yes and we complement with microbial
simple microbial indicators just like
and mesolog and
quantificated by play-count method
with different chances
cfu types to obtain another measure of
biological condition of the soils we
select these indicators to measure

soil functions effectors like habitat
provision or loss of biodiversity
and organic matrix cycle by sea
and respiration
also we measure like in the set of
microbial indicators
and the respiration rate of
all soils to construct
to build the nds first we make

another test to identify differences
between light uses with the big set of
and we test if we can integrate some of
indicators by geometric means is a
mathematical method
very useful to integrate measure of the
same nature
and then by a factor analysis joined to
correlation factor we select
more representative indicators to create

and yes and the
set of indicators and finally we use a
score function to
qualify line uses according to nds
we measure two methods based
on linear and non-linear transformation
of these indicators
and we obtain that measures like for
example in the environmental
variables the re

relative air humidity was a more
measure um in the physical chemical
component we identified that carbon
and the geometric mean of moisture and
were very important to differentiate
land uses
and define the abundance it's a very
important result
because is thanks to this we continue
with the investigation of fungi

fungal and fungal biodiversity on our
and we identify also that the
microbial respiration rate was another
of those
the indicators very important to
differentiate lung uses
and this picture we can see that
clearly the fungal lot
and also it showed clearly
the impact of the use this is the the

of non-perturbed areas this is a sample
from agricultural area and this is a
sample of mining project
we can see the decrease
of the number of ufc
and finally it to
to create the mds we select
by factor analysis the variables with
the highest
slowest factors and

that in complement doesn't have
correlated yes to avoid and redundance
variables in our
measure we want to create a measure with
a little set with a minimum data set
and avoiding residents
and we select the respiration rate
the humidity the via
sorry the relative air humidity and the

total dissolved solids it's important to
resolve to highlight that the
geometric means of microbial indicators
important load values and in the
next research we use this measure to
create another way to assess
also quality thanks
and finally to convert
we convert this minimum data set

by linear and nonlinear models and we
obtain that the
index calculated by scoring fusion
using the nonlinear model
show clearly the difference between like
with a good degree of differentiation
you can send peak in the graph we

hope that the values of all index
was highest in the non-perturbed areas
show medium values in the agriculture
and show the less values in mining
um the conclusion of this pilot studio
was that the geometric means appear
may be good with a good way for
including significant variables
absolute quality function also that

the circulating indices calculated by
non-linear function yes is more
to identify the disturbance and
difference in light uses
and based on these results
we continue proponed a
more robust indicator of microbial
and functionality especially on fungal
to create another set of and minimal

seeing these indicators and
the next step and that
we are working right now is in the
characterization of fungal communities
in the soils
and we are working in the esp to the
fungal nuclear reason while its2 region
to amplify this region with the primer
ef fitl7its4

and with a quantification of glomalin
concentration for salt samples
we are a cell the microbial diversity
from micro result
fungal and we are made in an experiment
to assess the micro colorization
percentage to include this kind of
in future so equality in this small
i thank you very much for your attention

thank you very much for
the conscience
research group that i take part
thank you so much thank you very much so
i'm sorry to say that a little bit uh
there is a little bit loud between your
talk and slice
presentation but i think uh we can get
uh the the data and later on
so maybe yeah everybody can give a chat

for questioning so
later on so okay thank you very much and
let's move on the last
uh presentation in the first part of the
that is given by miss ferranda
bellas alvarez her
title is bioter bioterm patience
as the quality indicators of typic
azures in the south east of

venus iris argentina a micro
approach so fly the euros

yeah it's perfect good morning
i am going to present my work inside led
by iteration as quality indicator
of typical healers in subways of buenos
aires argentina
a micromorphological approach this
study was conducted during my internship

at delhi university whose supervisor
was dr above it was funded by
the scholarship program for young
of conicell argentina
the soil biota contributes to the
structuring of soils and biological
is expressed through bioturbation

which is defined as the reworking
of soy components by organisms
the bioturbation analysis provides
information about the biological
activity in the soil
in the sixth section of micromorphology
these biodurations can be recognized
as biopores which density
informs about the good soil structuring
in relation to the content of organic

and nutrients those they can be used
as indicator of soil quality
the aim of the study is to validate
a methodology for the quantification of
bioporosity on the same section
of typicals of argentina
and analyze its possible role as
of soil quality

the study sites are located
in the subways of buenos aires province
in this area predominate the typicals
and these soils are used for traditional
agricultural production also
is common to find areas
forest a forested with exotic
vine and alkalitus species

these cultivate soils show a loss of
structure organic matter clay
aggregate stability soil biodiversity
and increase the of the bulk density
and penetration resistance
the study sites are located
in the eye sorry in the
study area for plots with typicals

were selected natural plots
and agricultural plots alcaliptus
globules forest plantation and venus
varieta for explantation
in its side five disturbed samples were
for determining chemical and physical
and on the other hand three undisturbed
samples were taken from the upper levels

solid psi profile
from the undisturbed samples the same
section was obtained
in the scene sections
the parameters obtained were a total
you see in the image she hot a program
and bioporosity applied two
the biopores were identified as

those pores with rounded edges or
or ellipsoidal in shape
methodology one in the scene section
where the variables were easily
an irregular polygon
on the online of the biopours withdrawal
using the current program the current
raw program

they must obtain it where binaries and
the bioporous area in black
was calculated using image shift
in the scene section where the vapors
were not easily
recognized and they are um
was totally reactivated
some angular and angular aggregates were
in the soil matrix the

image obtaining were binarized and the
area was calculated as
the bioturbity area less
subangular and angular aggregates area
in methodology 2
a 20 by 30 square grid
was run on the image
and the bioports were quantified by

phone counting
the bioports area in relation to the
image area was calculated
following the stereological principles
of the lease
in agricultural plots bulk density
and penetration resistance
were higher than natural and forest

plantation plots and
structural stability and organic matter
were lower than natural and forest
plantation plots
these resource compaction
a decrease in total porosity and a
aggregation emissions
with respect to porosity and bioporosity
forested and natural bloods

the higher values of total porosity
and bioports than agricultural plots
in this plot the biopores in
bold methodologies represent more than
80 percent of total porosity
while in the agricultural plots the
total porosity
was lower and the vioports
only had the 40 percent

of total porosity but
methodologies for bioporosity
show a difference but not significant
however the methodology 2 was selected
because it's required a lower time
of the image edition
the natural plots so we
are granular microstructure a

high porosity and a high deodoration
forest plots have a gram
microstructure a higher porosity
and a higher derivation in contrast
the agricultural plot shows a more
massive structure
a lower porosity and a lower
the valuables of the natural and forest
indicates an intensive form and roots

the biological activity and evaluations
in this plot are associated with the
matter organic and
this in turn contributes in the
formation and stability
of soil aggregates which is reflected in
a high
stability structural stability
as the intensive of land even increase

the organic matter and structural
stability decrease
and compaction increase therefore the
total porosity
and bioactivation decrease
conclusions natural and foreign higher
porosity and bioporosity
than the soil the agricultural bloods
and aggregated biological activity can

be estimated in natural
and forest plots in relation to the
agricultural bloods
by iterations coal constitutes good soil
quality indicators of the typical
finally the methodologies
for the measurement of bioporosity in
the methodology 2 represents
a contribution to this insection
description and quantification

since it's a simple tool when evaluating
soil quality
and biological terms
thank you very much
okay thank you very much yeah thank you
very much miss
uh miss fernanda so
um now so i would like to open the
uh discussion uh question and answer
so meanwhile so

some of presenters already answered
several questions
so i just i'm not
sure i can avoid overlapping but
anyway uh first uh
yeah here is a question uh to
norbin uh to uh to what extent will
the eu common agriculture policy reform
focus on soil bio indicators when making

payments to farmers
are there trends of standardizing these
at eu level international level
so miss knowing so could you address
this question
okay thank you thank you um i think i

tried to answer in the chat
um so in fact
actually uh in
the uh common european common
agriculture policy
uh soil by indicators
are not included at this moment
and i think we need to first really need
to include

soil and soils are included in the
next icing program
and it will be included with the carbon
and uh also soil erosion
and maybe my colleague can i do not
participate to
to the different exchange of the
common agricultural policy so it's just
one part of the question maybe
other colleagues can answer and

there is another part of the question is
your the up sorry
the other part is about uh
standardization of
buyer indicators i think and uh
and so i don't know if there is a
standardization of bioindicators that it
will be
really informed or there is a
really they really want to do this but i
i know that at european labor

uh the joint research program uh
center it's a joint research center it's
european it's a european center of the
european commission
and they launched in december 2020
the european uh union soil observatory
to monitor
trends of soul health in europe and i
here you can have the link to to see the
pages of this

program but there will be
maybe my colleague antonio who can
also contribute to the response but i
think that there will be more based on
different works that are were realized
in different member states
okay thank you sorry i don't have
all the answers i'm sorry thank you
no problem okay so and then so i'd like

to move to the questions
to eva so there are several different
questions uh so i think
eva already addresses several uh
questions to answer but i would like to
uh eve again to give uh
i can say comprehensive answers because
there are
different types of technical questions
so uh for instance at the target of
and the database and the why you

focus on eukaryotes and uh so
what's the meaning of feeding analysis
in terms of the
function and activity of organisms in
so eva could you address these questions
yes well thank you well we um
we use a 12vs 16s or 18s
region usually to amplify depending on
what group we are targeting
to assess diversity of eukaryotes or

or different groups of animals we can
also actually look at
specific groups bio indicators such as
columbus or arthropods for example
concerning the functions actually we we
use databases functional databases to
uh to look at when we have the taxonomic
of the organisms we compare them

to the to those function databases and
can assign
functions to specific organism
this is how we infer functions and this
is especially true for
bacteria and fungi and also
for eukaryotes we can have functional
databases such as nema guild
for nematodes for example um
sorry i forgot the other questions

so the the so how can you detect
the active or the functional group of
microbes or organisms via edna
yeah so whether we can identify if they
are active or not in the soil right
i think i also answered this question
but it's actually impossible to
differentiate between
living under the organisms or dead
but actually the dead organisms the dna

will degrade quite
quite rapidly so the the proportion of
dna that we find for those dead
organisms compared to the living
organisms will be very
low so in majority we detect living
thank you

sorry i can't
see the any further questions
uh so
i let me ask raul
one question so

so you showed the the abundance of fungi
and bacteria on the
culture-based number of
bacteria and fungi is a good indicator
uh so now contrary
e dna analysis is now
uh so being populated
or some becoming more popular and

popular so
how do you think how the i'm the power
of culture-based analysis of microbes
compared to the e-dna analysis
okay the idea with the use of culture
for foreign bacteria was
to find a simple method to identify
early warnings early warnings yes the

the problem with the dna
analysis is the cost and if you need
to cover a big area you need to analyze
a lot of samples
but if you have a system to identify
early warnings
you can identify the hot spots when you
make a dna analysis
in the back next step of my research
was continue with the dna analysis of
these soils
and we identified the souls that could

important fungal soil characteristics
of futures of the biodiversity single in
this point
and it was great because when obtained
the results
of the dna samples and we can identify
important taxes we can identify
important change in specific toxins like
like macedonicota for example

and it's a very important data to
qualify to describe the undissolved
okay thank you
then so uh we have one question
uh to maria but actually to fernando
so uh have you tried to measure the
bioporosity in other soil types
so could you address the question

fernando um
sorry my english is
very val um

could you repeat the question uh jump
okay okay so the question
is have you tried to measure bioporosity
in other soil

for now no she starts with the
with one plot i i couldn't
catch the name of the soil type i will
ask her
but the idea is to to amplify

the project in other soil types

okay thank you so
uh because we are a bit late
uh behind the schedule so let's move to
second part of our session
and of course uh if you have uh
find the questions or if you have any
and yeah you can continuously put your
message to the chat and
before i move to the second part of the

uh just i would like to ask all the
to make sure that uh your name
uh is correctly on the screen so that uh
our so our uh technicians or our
yeah so host can manage uh properly so
please be sure that your name is
properly expressed in on the screen okay

okay so then so let's uh
move to the second part
okay so uh the the first speaker
is uh so actually
mr nanam but uh it will it's replaced by
uh miss uh miss release lis kumara
so the co-author uh the the title is
soil microfauna diversity

in uh parasitic
sorry palace syrian cis falcao talia
and morris alba plant agroforestry in
bali island
so miss lady surprise u.s
thank you very much uh i'm going to
share my
powerpoint now my presentation now

can you see my presentation now
yes about either can you switch to the
presentation mode
okay is it okay yes perfect
okay uh good evening uh
good morning a good afternoon uh that's
unrighteous where you are
uh i'm the second author and i'm going
to present

our research about the soil microphone
over diversity
in paris and space area and mars abba
friend agroforestry in bali island
my our first author is nanam sasmita
unity as introduction
indonesia has a lot of agroforestry area

because we have a lot of forests and we
have tried to find
a nonprofit product as
our second income the bariatric forest
model is
based on mango queso orange cacao
coffee coconut mixed garden intercocking
and natural research protection
so for the natural resource protection
we find a parasite spakataria

was already test a lot because it's
adapted well in the set of lot of tree
one of them is parasantas pacatalia
as we know that soil abundant uh are one
of the pepper that increased the
agroforestyland productivity
for the composition the soil foreign we
improved the sickle cell fertility of
production combine uh topsoil materials
organic aggregate form and soil minerals

our study purpose was to determine the
diversity of soil macrocona
on valley agrocurrency plant with
and palace and spaghettaria
our location is in bali in
center of agroforest in bali the
location is about 100
meter above sea level and our uh
temperature is about 20 until 26 degrees
the same on or in local community sites

it's hang on
and the lava
we choose four random block design
the mulberry spacing is uh 50
times 100 centimeters for the first
and the other one is 100 times 100
100 times 150 centimeters
uh under the parasite spakataria stem

and for the control is the parasites
without any uh without any mulberry
each treatment was refilled for three
the microphone data collection using
manual transformation technique
the 30 times 30 centimeters per side
with 30 uh centimeters death the number
of floats were for
per treatment is about nine plots and
total are 36 observation plots the

analysis of
corporal is used to approach the species
important values and windows spaces the
first index and the second
winner species evenness index
as the result uh the presence of
macrofauna in the current area and
maru's alba
agroforestry fleet field are
we have five kilos uh

with uh like analytica with uh one
family from one family and then moluska
two family are thrown for that for about
22 family and then
annelida for one family and arthropoda
for 10 family
here is the important index failure
macrophage in price packataria
monoculture in
the lassi plus plus is 43.1 percent

and the lowest one is particular
we have a 27 of soil macrophone from 25
and 21 order were formed in agroforestry
for turn
while monoculture pattern only upon 12
species and ma
of macrofona from 10 family and 10
uh the important value index of the
macro fauna

uh 50 times 100 centimeters of price
bucket area agrocurrency in persons
is point five for the
less useful fuse and two point five for
the tianta
celsius two species of the soil
microphone classified as soil engines
which play a role of visual organic
matter decomposition
namely apparent aforeactodia
caliguinosa from lumbricidae and

lubricus rubellus
also from lubricion
the important following index of soil
machine power napoleon space
a hundred times a hundred centimeters
plot of price balcony and mulberry
uh also let's use platforms has the
hydro one
and the slower one is
the index field will pour the soil
at 150th time 100 centimeters per second

for hataria
and mulberry is the apollo
is the highest one and the lower one is
rubidius triatellus
the pattern of parasite asparcataria and
mulberry algorithm spacing
uh 50 times 100 100 times 100
centimeters and
150 times 100 centimeters
were dominated by apored
tortilla caliguinosa from business

let's use
is mostly in agriculture related to the
manual provision
here is the soil macrophage biodiversity
uh as adjective our results find that
we have a individual for 12 monoculture

and the whole end refill is 53 in
and for the agroforestry with 50
and 100 centimeters time is more larger
than the monoculture
so it's in the agroforestry with 100 100
of blood and 150 centimeters spot
from here we can see that uh the
the tiger the titan uh space
or the small space plot is more higher

than the others
the sun and winter diversity index
between 2.44
until 2.50 edge for the agroforestry
saw the diversity of soil microfauna in
medium category
agrocurrency pattern is greater greater
than one
so i'll even touch also the monocultures
the richest obsidian
soil microfauna in monoculture is 2.77
while agrocurrency is 3.21

until 3.33 the wealth value of the
macrophage is relatively low lower than
while the parenthesis falcataria and
mulberry agrocurrency is
classified as moderate is more than 3.5
the species events saw that the
monoculture and agroporti pattern are
not much different with the level
large enough of 0.89

to 0 for volume 92
so that the species is split evenly
the diversity of soil microfauna in
paris pacquataria and mulberry
agroversity is higher
the flanking distance is getting tighter
the index differences is increased so
you know that we can find that the plot
small area more small area of the
diversity is more higher
the second pro performance species
number in agroforestry are relatively

available and quality of the soil
organic matter
and the remnant of plant biomass as a
food source
as a conclusion soil macrocona in
agroforestry were born
in 27 species from 20
25 families and 21 order
the diversity and richness of soil
microfauna species in the planet's
area and mulberry agriculture system are
classified as moderate

uh 20.44 until 2.50 h
are effective in organic matter
decomposition it can increase soil
fertility and nutrient available because
the process of the composition of
organic matters becomes two until five
faster than without the presence of the

the effect of plant spacing on soil
macrophage community structure is
relatively moderate at tight spaces
with mean vitamin index are about 3.50
83 macrophona the first city in the soil
saw a relatively high correlation with
soil organic matter content
the dominance of lower vegetation and
soil moisture
uh microfauna diversity at ground level

so a relatively high correlation with
plane spacing and sunlight penetration
uh that is our prediction presentation
thanks for your attention thank you very
thank you mr lilies uh okay so thank you
very much
uh yes uh then so next speaker is
miss esperanza uh fertile wanga
uh the title is soil macro invertebrates
diversity and glyphosate

distribution in soybean plantations and
at yucatan peninsula mexico so
mr bronzer for ideas
hey good afternoon good evening good
so i will i will share my screen
and then in the moon
okay well thank you very much for for

being here present and as the
chairman has said i will present
a work uh related to summer convertible
and the presence of one of the
herbicides that is more
more used in the word glyphosate so
this is a teamwork this is a work done
and with buckingham university and also
collegial la fronterasur
in mexico okay like introduction

glyphosate and its main metabolite ampa
are even after years of application
present in soils
so they remain in soil after years of
an ampa accumulates onsite attached to
the clay particles
and this situation underlies the risk of
offside transport by water and wind

at the yucatan peninsula mexico
genetically modified glyphosate tolerant
have led to the intensive use of
previous investigations indicated the
contamination of humans
by this herbicide in yucatan
because of the time i'm not going to
explain what is happening
and and connect because as you know the
yucatan peninsula

has a very very a small soil we can say
it's not deep soil
so most of the person that you call that
so i'm not going to explain those things
i'm going to focus on soiling
so solid vertebrates
we have liter fermenters and soil
ecosystem engineers
as we have heard during the congress
the importance of the biodiversity of
these invertebrates
in order to to have solve good

solve health conditions so they are
known as
bio indicators of soil quality
so they help in solar organic solar
organic decomposition
and infiltration aggression of the soil
so we have heard all about these
so here just i'm showing you some photos
uh for instance uh coleoptera's
ants earthworms also ecosystem
engineers and the larva of coleoptera

so that are working in the soil
so here's a nice schema of brown etal
2000 for
where we can see how different kind of
interact in the soil so we have those
live above the soil the epj those that
live inside the soil endogek
and the anesthetic that move below and
above ground
we have also heard during this congress
how these
different type of earthworms interact

and contribute to the soil ecosystem
okay so what were the objectives of this
uh where to to measure glyphosate
and ampa in soils from the soybean crops
and also to determine salmon converted
rice diversity
and abundance in those places
so the study was done as i mentioned in
the yucatan peninsula
in mexico so here you can see this is

the gulf of mexico and here is the
yucatan peninsula
and campeche campeche is one of the
states located here
so we did a study in chenko and this
okay so the experimental design
we measured we took soil samples
at the soybean field so you see at the
side of your slide in orange color and
the soil being filled

and then we we put the transect
from the soil being felt into the
natural vegetation
so we took also samples there and after
we took samples also in the natural
so we had a total of 25 samples per
combination of
crop field crop field with natural
and then we did the same eight times so
we measured
the same design and eight times

so we in soybean felt fields
and also in mice fields so here you can
see a little photo
more or less how it looks uh the soybean
okay so we had a total of 200
oil samples they were taken for
glyphosate and ample determination and
we determined
these pollutants in the laboratory
so we mentioned we took a a monolith

also 200 monoliths
by the tsbf method we measured also
organic matter and clay
and we calculated a ratio
glyphosate invertebrates
as results are seeing in your slide in
the left side
of your slide you are seeing
uh the concentration of glyphosate
per a type of land management

so the concentration was higher
glyphosate and ampa
in the soybean plantation so you can see
where i'm pointing with my mouse and
we found also glyphosate and ampa
in the non-managed area in the natural
areas so that is not nice because
yeah that means that there is a adrift
with wind or water to the natural areas
and we found also glyphosate and alpine

in the mice crops
yeah and what is what is happening with
with the invertebrates so it is in there
is a kind of inverse relationship so
the lowest abundance of soil
invertebrates was
uh was found in the soil bean plantation
so it's the lowest and then we found in
the middle
in the non-management area in the
natural area
and after the highest a wound that was

found in the mice crop
so that was very surprised for us
because we found
a yeah an effect of glyphosate on the
abundance of the invertebrates
so the natural vegetation is affected
so we found law abundance
okay if we go more into the detail
so here we have in this table in the
left side that type of
land management soybean is

a non-managed area and then we have the
main principal taxa
that we found in this stool sorry
oh well this can happen
okay yeah so what we have here
is uh yeah the principal taxa
found in the study so ants earthworms
coleoptera thermites
gastropods so what we can see in this
table as most important
that gasteropods were absent completely

absent in the soybean field they were
abundant in mice
and also in the natural vegetation we
earthworms in the natural vegetation
and also in mice but not uh
yeah yeah more the highest the highest
abundance of earthworms was found
in the natural vegetation
the ratio in relation to the ratio of
invertebrates the highest ratio

was in the soybean felt and then
after in the managed non-managed area
and then in the mice group so
these are the main findings okay
discussion glyphosate is a component
known to harm humans
soil life and wildlife in this
study we found this taxa so it's a few

compared to another studies also in the
region iteration
you can find from one to nine taxa but
because of the perturbation
we found less here gasteropodas
most were the most vulnerable group in
this study
they were not present in the soybean
okay you have one so
thank you thank you for your attention
yeah thank you
thank you very much for keeping the time
so i appreciate it
so okay so then uh

because uh the last presenters has a
time limitation so
uh let's let me immediately move to the
the thought presenters uh miss uh
quintia sorry i cannot pronounce
properly carla neva
so from brazil so uh her
presentation is about inky trace
in two uh five feet
of no miss of brazilian stellar

okay so miss ginthia
so flaw is yours
thank you i'm
sharing the screen now just doing it yes
maybe esperanza yeah thank you
is it on screen yes and
could you ah perfect okay

well good morning everybody greetings
from brazil
well today i will talk about partial
of the first findings of a bigger
ongoing project
on nanky traits in in cerrado biome in
ankytrades are these small
analytic liquidated worms which live in
soils worldwide
but there are also aquatic and marine
ones they are saprophagus

microbivore known to play a role in
nutrient cycling
and soil structure the knowledge on
these animals remain
largely unknown in most places and even
more in the tropics
and that's the case in brazil
cerrado is one of the six biomes in
it's considered a hot spot of
biodiversity and
endemic species which occupies
mainly the central region of the country

and it has two well-marked seasons a dry
and a rainy one soils are cons are
acid and considered at low fertility
but cerrado has been increasingly taken
by the expanding agriculture and
livestock activities
over the last 40 years as a result
of a lot of applied technology
about half of the area is

still covered with natural vegetation
but the loss and conservation of
have been a matter of concern in this
so studies on animals sensitive to
environmental changes
are urgently needed constituting
considering the current threats
the presence of encitrates has been
reported a couple of times
in cerrado biome in the past but

sampling had been performed with
inappropriate methods to determine
abundance accurately
genus and species composition has never
been studied either
until this project has started so the
objective of the present study
is to determine incutrate density and
generic composition into
of cerrado biome to support the use of
these organisms to the monitoring of
soil biological quality
soil biodiversity and sustainability of

reduction systems
so two types of cerrado vegetation were
sampled for enki trades
a gallery forest which is more humid
it's close to water has taller trees
and closed canopy and it's also
the the glacial is is covered by a thick
layer of organic
matter on the other hand

cerrado sense restrictor which is a
typical cerrado
it has shorter trees and shrubs and a
more open vegetation
on feral soul
sampling took place in two
well-preserved areas
in brasilia national park and brasilia
botanical garden
those are places in the capital of
sampling was carried out at 10 points

distance 10 to 15 meters
uh in the plot once a year at the end of
a rainy season in 2017
and 18 and once in the dry season of the
previous year
sampling and extraction procedures were
based on
iso guidelines uh recommendations for
encountered sampling
a metal ring was used to sample soil at
each point
and then the soil was taken to the

to a hot extraction device made of
funnels full of water and lamps
to force the worms to move downwards so
that they can be collected and counted
after that live specimens were
identified under
optic microscope up to genus level
fixed specimens were used for species
determination chemical and granulomatory
analysis were also carried out

so results this first graph shows the
number of ankytrades
per square meter and the sampling size
and the dates
of sampling the lower graph shows
the percentage of individuals of each
genus represented by different color
at each corresponding site and date
generally speaking ankit rates were more
abundant abundant in 2018
than 2017 reaching the mark of

3 000 individuals per square meter of
enchi trade density in gallery forest
in botanical garden
the typical cerrado showed a lower
density of antitrade worms when compared
to calorie forest
in dry season practically zero
individuals were found
it's not worthy that an extremely severe
drought occurred
in 2016 what could have impacted the
enki trade community

in 2017
in terms of genus composition a maximum
of six non-genera
were found but the genus composition
with sight and ear typico cerrado
here and here at the national park
revealed lower richness than gallery
genus guaranitrillos in yellow
mnk trails in blue
and spr which is a potentially new genus

in green
they were then predominant groups
a principal analysis uh components
analysis was performed with soil
chemical and texture variables and genus
density and richness of inky traits
it separated the vegetation types
so typical cerrado and gallery forests
and also the locations so botanical

and national park it also uh
showed positive correlations between um
gino's richness with organic matter
and soil fertility attributes
in the world uh more than
700 species belonging to 33 genera
are known while in latin america only 62
species of these 15 genera are known
32 species uh

occur in brazil and they are native
in in the present study we identified
already known species and six
potentially new species one of
one of the boronetriolis species is
possibly a new genus due to
unique combinations of characteristics
so conclusions cerrado can harbor quite

high densities of enchitrades which is
to other biomes in brazil and temperate
so far together with data collected in
other sides of cerrado
we found species of eight different
genera and about 20 or more
different species
six to seven genera and six potentially
new species were found
in the two sites which data were
presented here

so there is a there's still a huge
area of cerrado and also other regions
in brazil to be explored foreign trades
i'm very grateful to my colleagues and
students who embarked in this project
to unravel the wonders of these tiny
and if you are interested in facing this
challenge together
you are very welcome to join us thank

yeah thank you uh cso for your nice
and also i appreciate your keeping time
or presentation
so now thank you so and then so
let's move to the last presentation so
uh that is given by miss
stephanie christman from morocco
her the title is regard and protect
ground nesting bees as
part of soil biodiversity so miss
stephanie please

do you see my screen yes and could you
to the presentation mode
okay good thank you and
which oh yeah yes perfect yeah we change

a bit the topic um because now uh
i would like uh to shift your attention
to more regard
for the need to protect uh ground
nesting uh pollinators
also as part of soil by uh biodiversity
for instance this nice ascend bee on the
it needs the soil for regeneration
and and i think we have to
protect them more

like this is very much disturbing here
uh the european union uh the world food
organization and also
uh the global soil partnership and
they have a definition of
soil biodiversity which is focused on
the provision of
uh for ecosystem services by soil biota
and this definition excludes wild

um though they depend on
soil as a habitat for regeneration and i
think this
is a bit a risky strategy
because uh 60 to 70
um of all wild bees and all solitary
so the most effective wild pollinators
nest in the ground and
when you look on our agricultural

for those who need for instance um dead
or hollow stems they will not find it
in a landscape with monocultures
so they disappear from um agricultural
lands and when you sample in
such landscapes you will find mostly
ground testing pollinators
but um they are also
under very heavy threat and they also

don't fly
far for instance bumblebees that social
which build colonies of 200 or 300
um species and they fly
up to two kilometers but most of them in
particular the solitary beast
they fly up to one kilometer not further
so they are very much in need to have a
part in in the field where they can

when you look at their life cycle
there is a short period when they are
flying and when the adults are
but a long period is below soil
and um of course in early spring
the adults make several mess but
during this period of uh level
or adults in the ground if there is a
deep tillage
there's a next generation is gone

additionally we have uh the problem
that chemicals accumulate in soil and
um neonicotinoids for instance
up to 94 percent accumulate in soil
and water when you imagine a female
wild bee digging all the cavities uh
to lay the eggs this can be toxic
and the regeneration is at risk

but this is very risky as 87
of all flowering plants depend on
they depend on pollinators for
regeneration and also for adaptation to
climate change
because cross-pollination enhances
genetic diversity and thus the chance
to adapt to climate change so
many of these plants are important
for soil fertility and for soil

biodiversity for instance the fabric
bk they have the nitrogen fixation
which is important for soil fertility of
or for instance wild roses they
prevent soil erosion um in
in a world with a heavy loss
of pollinators a very strong decline
when you have a degraded land like here

in these slopes
it would be very difficult to do any
conservation measures for soil
or competitor of erosion if you don't
have all the plants
anymore which are pollinator dependent
i think the full impacts
of polynomials only nato laws are not
um understood as 87
of all um flowering plants depend on

really a high uh extent of
uh ecosystem services which you see here
and in bright green depend on
and if um pollinators
um get very scarce and we lose at the
same time
these ecosystem services to a great
for instance erosion prevention so soil
habitat for species uh wastewater

treatment and so on then we
get into an interlinked spiral of
environmental degradation
and later of economic and social
for instance in mountain regions people
can even abandon their land because they
have such increase of mud flows they
cannot produce
pollinator dependent crops anymore no
medicinal plants anymore
um in labor migration of use

the old people uh cannot manage to stay
there anymore
so in total um we might even get more
conflicts because there is a lot of
this is a worst case scenario which can
be fueled by climate change
would we should avoid for sure
therefore i would suggest to consider
um that the global soil partnership

uses a definition like
the cbd which is habitat-oriented
and then um white pollinators
which nest in the ground would be
included into
the definition and in consequence also
in the protection measures
of the global soil partnership
the second thing i want to suggest is
uh to promote farming with all the

pollinators briefly fab and to assess if
this has also positive effects
for soil biodiversity
tap is a measure to intensify
production by a better use of two
ecosystem services pollination and pest
and the result is higher income
per service so a fat field has the main

in a part of the field here the dark
green parts
and habitat enhancement in the
smaller parts of the field which is here
bright green
habitat enhancement is done by
marketable habitat
enhancement plants only like spices oil
medicinal plants berries
vegetables whatever you want they can be
perennial plants

or annual plants and then either packed
for the ground nesting bees or hollow
stems or
dead wood with boreholes and so on as
nesting support for
wild pollinators and then we measure
the impacts on insect diversity and
for pollinators natural enemies and
pests and the net income
surface and the net income per service
is much much higher from fat fields than

from control fields which
have just um monocultural
uh the main crop so
i think if um the global soil
would promote uh such an approach with
uh areas where ground nesting bees
uh or ground nesting webs
can regenerate that would be of
a great value and also i think it would
be nice
to see if there is a difference if it is

annual or perennial marketable habitat
enhancement plans
and what are best options uh to get
also for um soil biodiversity
through this approach
yeah these are my suggestions and um
maybe some of you would be ready
to consider them thank you
thank you stephanie for your nice

presentation that
just expand our view about the solid
so now you'd like to open
the q a session
so and because i heard that
stephanie has to leave earlier so i have
like to take the question to
how stephanie so right now

so for
yes i think
uh still we have no
questions to uh stephanie so
but i think you can stay for
for a while okay

okay so then so uh because
uh we don't have much uh many questions
uh let's move to the first presentation
by lilly
so uh there are some questions to her so
to really
so about the plant species so you used
two different
uh plants so marbelly and so the
first uh the tree and the
question is are there native in body or

okay uh
yeah is it a movie reverse question from
i'm sorry from jonathan carter about the
more very indigenous in bali yes there's
a few mulberry world indians in barrie
such as uh what is it called
black mulberry it's really uh indigenous
in value
and also like

is also indigenous uh the second
is the most important species in our
in your study i've already
answered it in in the chat
there's a few uh important
but the uh most of them is the important
is uh was it warm and and
there's two species there and then uh

the ex this spacing treatment are
related to the plant use
uh yes uh in the in our
in our agroforestry there are
we've tried to find uh what is the right
what is the right plot i mean the right
distance from the one
from one more berry to not to the other
we try a few like 52
centimeters to a

1 100 centimeters this uh
after this study we find that the
the one with 50 and 100 centimeters
times 100 centimeters is the most
uh rich for the pawna
and so is the the lip is more better
than the others
uh as you know that mulberry in hours uh
in hours ago percy
is for the silkworm

for feeding the sweet forms so we have
take uh to find a lot of uh lips for the
and then are the dominant species
not tip of belly or exo because i can't
understand this one but i think uh if
it's the mulberry or the pawna
is it for the berry or a blueberry or
the poner hola por pona

okay uh the dominant species uh
is nothing in uh from the from the
light soil in bali
maybe that's all okay and the last
question is
uh you measure the different soil
parameters so
uh do you did you find any relationship
uh between the microfarad
and uh soil properties

oh with the yeah the ph
other propensity uh usually
uh in our land i mean in our soil when
there's a lot of fauna uh there must be
a lot
of decomposition that's why the
ph is a little acid
maybe okay yes
sunden uh yeah it's almost

time uh i have no further
or urgent questions on the chat so
uh rosa uh do we
still uh able to put input
the question on chat after the session
yes of course if there's somebody um
that wants to to ask

complementary questions um we can we can
stay a few more minutes
okay okay thank you
please feel free to type in in the chat
if you
if you you have doubts comments
so then so uh
so uh for the moment i would like to
thank all the presenters and also

the the participant to join this session
and uh so thank you very much for your
kind contribution we please
revenues so
now we have a chat uh they're asking
how to find the replays of babies
rosa can you answer this
some are you recording the this session

so how
uh how we can replay this you we can
the foul uh yeah yeah yeah we
we will uh publish after the symposium
of course
all the material including the the
recording uh
sessions yes
okay so
then so now it's time
so uh yeah so we still

open this session for a while so please
put any
feedback and also uh thank you very much
for your
contributions and also i wish all
the good day and good night and also
uh you can continue continuously
enjoy the the next two
days of this symposium yeah
and so rosa do you have any further

no no okay okay so then so uh
thank you very much all and have a good
day and have a good night
so i'll see you next day
so rosa thank you very much for your you
are helping the session so
i i didn't know i i wasn't uh seen

by bye you because i i i had been
in the in in the session but uh
so maybe no one could identify me
yes i saw um
i saw one uh name maybe in japanese
i didn't know sorry so i i i'm sorry
i'm sorry so i i forgot to change my

into english
so yeah i appreciate your help
no no problem
are we still recording the the session
so how how do

the participant see the all the chat
comments after the session
so do you have any text
to be uploaded to the website
yeah maybe we can publish the the
questions but
um we need to discuss
okay because depends on the on the
amount of the information
and also we need to approach the


This is the recording of the Parallel Session 2 that happened during the second day of the Global Symposium on Soil Biodiversity, on the 20th of April 2021.


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